Chronology

The Life and Career of Marcel Proust

1871

10 July

Marcel Proust, the elder son of Adrien Proust and Jeanne Weil Proust, is born in the fashionable Paris suburb of Auteuil.

1886

Proust inscribes his tastes, etc., in a keepsake album (Album de Confessions) belonging to Mlle Antoinette Faure, whose father will later be elected president of France.

Fall

Proust reads l'Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre by Augustin Thierry, which inspires him to become a writer. In a letter written two years later to his mother, he refers to 1886 as "the year of Augustin Thierry."

1889

Fall

Proust is introduced to Mme Arman de Caillavet and her lover Anatole France. He begins to frequent her literary salon.

1892

May

Proust publishes in Le Banquet new Etudes (portraits of Mme Straus and Mme de Chevigné, models for the duchesse de Guermantes), and a polemic signed "Laurence," attacking L'Irréligion d'Etat and socialism.

circa December

Proust writes in an album Marcel Proust by himself: his tastes and preferences. His favorites novelists are Anatole France and Pierre Loti; his preferred poets are Charles Baudelaire and Alfred de Vigny.

1893

13 April

Proust meets Count Robert de Montesquiou at a dinner given by Madeleine Lemaire.

8 May

Jacques-Emile Blanche's portrait in oil of Proust is exhibited at the official salon.

circa July 1

Proust attends a party where he first sees the comtesse Greffulhe, considered to be the most beautiful woman in Paris. She will be a model for the duchesse de Guermantes.

1894

22 May

Proust attends a party at Madeleine Lemaire's, where he meets the young composer Reynaldo Hahn.

circa late December

Hahn introduces Proust to the writer Alphonse Daudet and his sons, Léon and Lucien, who will become close friends.

1895

July

Proust accompanies his mother to the German spa Kreuznach, where he works "a lot," apparently on a long, ambitious novel whose hero is named Jean Santeuil. Proust will write drafts for Jean Santeuil until he abandons it in 1899.

1896

12 June

Calmann-Lévy publishes Pleasures and Days.

1897

Circa December

Proust discovers the works of John Ruskin.

1898

7-23 February

Proust attends Zola's trial, which inspires chapters of Jean Santeuil.

1899

Fall

Proust abandons his novel to devote himself to translating Ruskin.

1900

1 April

La Gazette des Beaux-Arts publishes part of the essay on Ruskin from Proust's preface to his translation of The Bible of Amiens.

April

Le Mercure de France publishes the second part of the preface Ruskin à Notre-Dame d'Amiens.

circa 1 May

Proust and his mother leave for Venice where they will meet Marie Nordlinger and Reynaldo Hahn. Nordlinger helps Proust correct the proofs of his essay for the Gazette des Beaux-Arts.

1902

18 October

He visits The Hague, where he sees Vermeer 's View of Delft. Of all the paintings he saw in Holland, he said that he liked this one best.

1903

24 November

Dr. Proust suffers a stroke, from which he dies two days later.

1904

27 February

Proust signs copies of La Bible d'Amiens, dedicated to his father.

1905

June

Proust writes a long note for Sesame and Lilies, which seems to anticipate the structure of In Search of Lost Time.

15 June

His essay Sur la lecture appears in the Renaissance latine.

26 September

Proust mother dies of nephritis.

1906

2 June

Sésame et les lys is published.

circa 8 October

Proust subleases his great uncle Louis Weil's apartment at 102, boulevard Haussmann, where he will write most of In Search of Lost Time.

1907

4 or 5 August

Proust leaves for Cabourg, where he will vacation every summer at the Grand-Hôtel until 1914.

circa mid-August

Proust, driven by chauffeur Alfred Agostinelli, with whom he later falls in love, visits churches in Bayeux, Caen, Balleroy, and Dives.

19 November

Le Figaro publishes Proust's article Impressions de route en automobile, in which he speaks of his excursions with Agostinelli and describes the steeples of Caen seen from the speeding car. He will use this episode for the steeples of Martinville in Swann's Way.

1908

early January

Proust prepares to write Robert et le chevreau, Maman part en voyage, the first known draft of In Search of Lost Time.

1 February

From February to November, Proust fills the first fourteen pages of the first notebook, known as The Notebook of 1908, with observations for the novel.

1909

March

He writes the prologue to Against Sainte-Beuve.

16 August

He writes Mme Straus that he has "just begun—and finished—a whole long novel." Calmette offers to publish the novel in installments in Le Figaro.

1912

circa 24

December Gallimard returns the typescript of the novel and informs Proust of the Nouvelle Revue Française's decision not to publish. Fasquelle also returns the typescript with a rejection letter.

1913

circa 19

February Proust learns that Ollendorff will not publish Swann's Way. He then entreats René Blum to ask Bernard Grasset to publish his book at the author's expense.

14 November

Du côté de chez Swann is published. In her husband's taxi, Céleste Albaret delivers signed copies of the book to Proust's friends. Céleste begins to come regularly to work at boulevard Haussmann.

1914

11 January

André Gide writes Proust that "The rejection of this book will remain the gravest mistake ever made by the NRF."

20 March

Gide informs Proust that the Nouvelle Revue Française is ready to assume publication of the remaining volumes of his novel.

30 May

Agostinelli drowns after his airplane crashes in the sea off Antibes. Unaware of the tragedy, Proust replies to a recent letter from Agostinelli. He will use passages from these letters in Albertine disparue.

3 August

Germany declares war on France.

1916

October

Proust sends Gallimard the manuscript d'A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs, along with the first twenty pages of Le Côté de Guermantes. He says that he has the manuscript of the entire work. Proust will, however, continue to revise and expand the novel until his death.

1917

21 December

The typesetting of A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs is stopped due to the manpower shortage.

1919

June 1

La Nouvelle Revue Française publishes in its first post-war edition an excerpt from Proust's novel.

21 June

A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs goes on sale, along with Pastiches et Mélanges, a collection of parodies and essays, which he dedicates to Walter Berry, and a new edition of Du côté de chez Swann.

10 December

A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs wins the Prix Goncourt, France's most prestigious literary award.

1920

26 January

In England, Charles Kenneth Scott Moncrieff signs a contract to translate Proust's novel into English.

22 October

Le Côté de Guermantes I is published.

1921

2 May

Gallimard publishes Le Côte de Guermantes II — Sodom et Gomorrhe 1.

1922

29 April

Publication of Sodome et Gomorrhe II.

18 November

Proust dies from pneumonia.

1923

Publication of La Prisonnière.

1925

Publication of Albertine disparue.

1927

Publication of Le Temps retrouvé.